January 25, 2013 – Tsunami Top 20 Death Toll: The tsunami parameters were downloaded from the NOAA database and include the 3,422 years from 1410 B.C. to April 30, 2012. The graph, above, reflects the top 20 tsunamis, in terms of reported deaths; without out the “Sumatra” event. The worst mega-quake and tsunami is alone at the top of the list unnumbered. The gold numbers on the bottom of the graph, are shown below, along with the details of the disaster:
The “Country” column shows ten Japanese (red) and two Indonesian (blue) events. The EQ/VOL (Earthquake/Volcano) column shows one volcano (red square), and two magnitude 9’s, and 13 magnitude 8’s (blue). The height of the tsunami is shown in meters and feet. Tsunami waves are described by both their height and their “run-up”. Tsunami run-up is the maximum height that the tsunami reaches on land above normal sea level. Run-up is dependent on the type and size of tsunami, as well as coastal landscape and how the land is being used. Run-up is a more useful measure than tsunami height as it relates more closely to the onshore effects of a tsunami. Run-up (pictured below) is the most visibly destructive part of the tsunami as the water picks up debris along its way and with great force swamps the coastal landscape: causing damage to anything in its path.
One cubic yard of water weights 1,682 pounds. Imagine the amount of water contained in the tsunami’s generated by the Japanese 2011 and Indonesian 2004? That is why the run-up numbers are so high with the Japanese 3/11/11 and Indonesian 12/26/04 events.
With a 9.1 magnitude quake, a tsunami wave height of 167 feet and a run-up number of 1,058; the December 26, 2004 Indonesian mega-quake and tsunami inundated the entire Indian Ocean. Here is a picture of damage in Sri Lanka:
*The significance of Uduwap poya day: In the yearly cycle of full moons, two are of special significance to Sri Lankan Buddhists. They are the full moon days of the months of Poson (June) and Uduwap (December). Poson full moon day marks the arrival of Mahinda Thera and King Devanampiya Tissa‘s conversion to Buddhism. It was a turning point in the history of Sri Lanka, as it was. Buddhism became the State religion.
Here is a link describing tsunami earthquakes back to 1605:
The Master of Disaster